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Illustrations JanetMoneymaker Editor MarjieBassler Copyright2014GravitasPublications,Inc. Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem, ortransmitted,inanyformorby

Contents Introduction CHAPTER 1 THE TOOLS OF SCIENCE 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Introduction BriefHistory BasicTools AdvancedTools Summary 2 3 6 7 8 1 Chemistry CHAPTER 2 CHEMISTS TO

Biology CHAPTER 6 BIOLOGISTS TOOLBOX 6.1 Introduction 6.2 BriefHistory 6.3 BasicBiologyTools 6.4 AdvancedBiologyTools 6.5 Summary 38 38 40 41 43 45 47 47 49 37 CHAPTER 7 PROTISTS MOVE 7. 1 7

CHAPTER 12 LINEAR MOTION 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 Introduction HowFar AverageSpeed Acceleration Summary 75 76 76 78 79 80 82 82 83 85 88 81 CHAPTER 13 NONLINEAR MOTION 13. 1 13.2 13.3 13.4

Astronomy CHAPTER 18 ASTRONOMERS TOOLBOX 18. 1 Introduction 18.2 BriefHistoryofaBasicTool 18.3 WhatIsaTelescope 18.4 EarlyTelescopes 18.5AdvancedTelescopes 18.6 Summary 19.1 19.2 19.3 19.4 19.5

Introduction

2 Exploring the Building Blocks of Science Book 2 1.1Introduction Howdoscientists studytheworld aroundthemHowdo theyknowhowfast anelectrontravelsor whatthebackofa butterflywinglooks likeHowdotheysee

Introduction Chapter 1 The Tools of Science 3 1.2BriefHistory Bothbasicandadvancedtoolsbeganasinventionsthat helpedpeoplecontrolandunderstandtheirsurroundings. Aninventionissomethingnewthatsomeonecr

4 Exploring the Building Blocks of Science Book 2 Thesamethinghappenswhenscientistsinventtoolstohelp themstudytheworldaroundthem.Theythinkoftoolsthat mightallowthemtoseedetailsbetter,hearsoundsbetter,

Introduction Chapter 1 The Tools of Science 5 Becauseancientpeoplewerealwaystestingnewwaysto maketheirlivingconditionsbetter,thetoolstheyinvented werecontinuallyimproveduponandadapted.Withthese newto

6 Exploring the Building Blocks of Science Book 2 1.3BasicTools Themostimportanttoolsscientistsusearetheirownfive senses sight,hearing,smell,touch,andtaste.Toexplorethe worldaroundthem, scientistsma

Introduction Chapter 1 The Tools of Science 7 Withthesebasictools,scientistscanexploretemperature, howantscarryfoodtotheirhomes,andwhatminerals areinsidearockorgeode.Basictoolsareeasytouse,and manyar

8 Exploring the Building Blocks of Science Book 2 Forexample,asascientistyoumightwanttoknowexactly howmuchatinysampleofsaltweighs.Tomeasurethe weight,youwoulduseascaleofsomesort.Ingeneral,a basicscale

Physics

82 Exploring the Building Blocks of Science Book 2 13.1Introduction Inthelastchapterwesawhowthespeedofanobjectcan bemeasuredwhenitismovinginastraightline.Welearned thatmovementinastraightlineiscalled

Physics Chapter 13 Nonlinear Motion 83 Buttheballnotonly movesforward,italso movesupanddown.The upanddownmotionforms acurvedpath.Because thispathiscurvedand notstraight,itiscalled nonlinearmotion.Non

84 Exploring the Building Blocks of Science Book 2 However,ifyoulookbelowthebikeframeandnoticethe wheels,youwillseethatthewheelsareturningasyou pedal.Inphysics,wecallthistypeofmotionnonlinear motion.T

Physics Chapter 13 Nonlinear Motion 85 oftheCDisnotconvertedtolinearmotionbuttosound. However,inallcases,thewheels,propellers,andCDsare movingwithrotationalmotion.Theyareallmovinginacircle. 13.4Easy

86 Exploring the Building Blocks of Science Book 2 Whenyouusethepedalstoturnthefrontsprocket,the chaintransfersthis motiontothe sprocketonthe backwheel, turningthewheel andmovingthe bicycleforward. Th

Physics Chapter 13 Nonlinear Motion 87 Ifthefront sprocketismuch largerthanthe backsprocket,the gearisharderto pedalbutmakes thebackwheel moveveryfast.On aflatsurfacethis gearisusedfor speed. Ifthefr

88 Exploring the Building Blocks of Science Book 2 13.5Summary Nonlinearmotionismotionofanobjectthatmovesina Rotationalmotionisatypeofnonlinearmotionofan Bicycles,cars,motorcycles,andairplaneprope

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