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Cover design David Keller Opening page David Keller Illustrations Janet Moneymaker, Rebecca W. Keller, PhD Copyright 2013 Gravitas Publications, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication

Contents CHAPTER 1 WHAT IS PHYSICS 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Introduction The Basic Laws of Physics How We Get Laws The Scientific Method Summary 2 2 3 4 7 8 1 CHAPTER 2 FORCE, ENERGY, AND WORK 2.1 2.2 2.3

CHAPTER 6 ELECTRICAL ENERGY AND CHARGE 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 Electrical Energy Electric Charge Charging Objects Electrical Force Summary 35 36 37 38 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 CHAPTER 7 MOVING ELECTRIC C

2 FOCUS ON MIDDLE SCHOOL PHYSICS 1.1 Introduction Have you ever wondered what makes a feather float but a boulder fall, or why a bird can fly but a whale cannot Have you ever noticed that when your

CHAPTER 1 WHAT IS PHYSICS 3 We know that objects such as baseballs, airplanes, and people consistently obey the laws of physics and dont suddenly break one or two. It would be kind of hard to play b

4 FOCUS ON MIDDLE SCHOOL PHYSICS People still had trouble believing him, and it wasnt until Isaac Newton showed mathematically why this was true that it was finally accepted. Isaac Newton is conside

CHAPTER 1 WHAT IS PHYSICS 5 For example, you may notice that each time it snows, people in big trucks spread salt on the roads. You may also notice that cars have less trouble on these salted roads

6 FOCUS ON MIDDLE SCHOOL PHYSICS For example, you may decide to test your hypothesis that salt makes rubber tires sticky with an experiment. You might take two pieces of rubber and add salt to one a

CHAPTER 1 WHAT IS PHYSICS 7 Based on this one experiment, you cannot say why the salt helps the cars drive more easily. You would have to conduct more experiments. But you have been able to eliminat