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Cover design David Keller Opening page David Keller Illustrations Rebecca W. Keller, PhD Copyright 2013 Gravitas Publications, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced,

CONTENTS iii Contents CHAPTER 1 LIVING CREATURES 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 The Science of Life Taxonomy Domains and Kingdoms Further Classification Naming Living Things Summary Introduction The Cell

iv CONTENTS CHAPTER 6 PROTISTS I 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 Introduction The Microscope Movement Summary 39 40 41 42 44 45 46 46 47 48 49 49 50 51 52 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 58 59 60 61

2 FOCUS ON MIDDLE SCHOOL BIOLOGY 1.1 The Science of Life What is biology The word biology comes from the Greek words bios, which means life, and logos, which means description. So biology is the fie

CHAPTER 1 LIVING CREATURES 3 1.2 Taxonomy One way to understand living things is to organize or classify them. By organizing the different types of living things, scientists can better study both th

4 FOCUS ON MIDDLE SCHOOL BIOLOGY How do we decide which kingdom a living thing should be placed in Should a dog be grouped with the tigers, or should it be placed with the bacteria Should a house ca

CHAPTER 1 LIVING CREATURES 5 The animal kingdom, Animalia nmly, includes ALL of the animals dogs, cats, frogs, sea urchins, bees, birds, snakes, jellyfish, bunnies, and even us The animal kingdom ha

6 FOCUS ON MIDDLE SCHOOL BIOLOGY The fungus kingdom, Fungi funj includes mushrooms, toadstools, truffles, and even athletes foot The fungi were once grouped as plants, but they have many unique feat

CHAPTER 1 LIVING CREATURES 7 1.4 Further Classification Once a living thing has been placed into a kingdom, the classification continues. Living things are further organized by being placed in addit

8 FOCUS ON MIDDLE SCHOOL BIOLOGY 1.5 Naming Living Things Finally, families are further divided into the genus jns, and the genus is divided into the species spshz. The genus is the last group in wh

CHAPTER 1 LIVING CREATURES 9 1.6 Summary Here are the main points to remember from this chapter Biology is the study of living things. Taxonomy is a branch of biology that classifies living things.