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Illustrations Janet Moneymaker Marjie Bassler Rebecca W. Keller, PhD David J. Keller, PhD Copyright 2017 Gravitas Publications, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced

Contents Introduction CHAPTER 1 Using Science 1. 1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 Introduction Using Science for Medicine Using Science to Save Endangered Species Using Science for Transportation Using Science f

CHAPTER 5 Biological Polymers 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 Introduction Amino Acid Polymers Proteins Nucleic Acid Polymers RNA Building Biological Machines Summary 70 71 73 83 88 90 93 Biology CHAPTER 6

Physics CHAPTER 10 Chemical Energy 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 1 1.5 11.6 11.7 11.8 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.5 13.6 Introduction Gas Laws Stored Chemi

CHAPTER 15 The Biosphere 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 16.5 16.6 17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4 17.5 17.6 17.7 Introduction Cycles in the Biosphere Where Is Home The Food Web Summary Introduction

CHAPTER 20 Other Galaxies 20.1 20.2 20.3 20.4 20.5 20.6 20.7 20.8 21.1 21.2 21.3 21.4 21.5 21.6 21.7 Introduction Spiral Galaxies Barred Spiral Galaxies Elliptical Galaxies Lenticular Galaxies Irregul

Exploring the Building Blocks of Science Book 7

Introduction See chapter interior for photo credits.

2 Exploring the Building Blocks of Science Book 7 1.1 Introduction In our modern world almost everywhere we go, we can see some invention, product, or service that has been developed as a result of s

Introduction Chapter 1 Using Science 3 In this book we will take a closer look at some of the science that has been used for innovations that improve peoples lives. Well explore some very important d

4 Exploring the Building Blocks of Science Book 7 1.2 Using Science for Medicine One of the most important discoveries in science is the polymer, specifically the chemical processes used in making sy

Introduction Chapter 1 Using Science 5 Understanding how biological polymers work inside the body has also opened the door for advances in medicine. As we will see in Chapter 5, our bodies are full o

6 Exploring the Building Blocks of Science Book 7 For example, a recent project by the World Wildlife Organization is tracking the onehorned rhinoceros in Nepal and India. Due to overhunting, by 1975

Introduction Chapter 1 Using Science 7 1.4 Using Science for Transportation Science has given us a variety of choices when it comes to transportation. We can now travel by bicycle, motorcycle, car,

8 Exploring the Building Blocks of Science Book 7 Scientists and engineers are still working on ways to go farther and faster when we travel. Superconductors may one day revolutionize the way we go fr

Introduction Chapter 1 Using Science 9 1.5 Using Science for Business As our knowledge and understanding of the world around us continues to expand, the number of new products and new innovations al

10 Exploring the Building Blocks of Science Book 7 off the bump. From there it runs down into channels between the bumps. The channels of the beetles shell are hydrophobic and repel water. By standing

Introduction Chapter 1 Using Science 11 This polymer has unique properties, though. It can be sprayed onto a surface and removed without leaving any residue. However, it wasnt until 1974 that a chemi

Biology Lilium bulbiferum Courtesy of Uoaei1, Wikimedia Commons License CC BY SA 3.0

Biology Chapter 6 Plants 97 6.1 Introduction 1 Everywhere you go there are plants. Plants are one of the most adaptable and abundant forms of multicellular life on the planet. In many parts of the

98 Exploring the Building Blocks of Science Book 7 The study of plants is called botany, and scientists who study plants are botanists. The word botany comes from the Greek word botane which means pla

Biology Chapter 6 Plants 99 membrane. The nucleus is an organelle in eukaryotic cells that holds DNA and other protein machinery needed to copy the genetic material used for reproduction. The organel

100 Exploring the Building Blocks of Science Book 7 6.3 Classification of Plants Like other organisms, Latin names are used for the taxonomic classification of plants. Plants are in the domain Eukary

Biology Chapter 6 Plants 101 Phyla Nonvascular Bryophyta mosses Anthocerotophyta hornworts Marchantiophyta liverworts Lycopodiophyta club mosses Nonseeded Vascular Kingdom Plantae Vascular Sphe

102 Exploring the Building Blocks of Science Book 7 6.4 Nonvascular Plants Phyla Nonvascular Bryophyta mosses Anthocerotophyta hornworts Marchantiophyta liverworts Nonvascular plants do not have

Biology Chapter 6 Plants 103 Using osmosis, nonvascular plants absorb water and nutrients from their surroundings through their leaf surfaces or plant body. Because nonvascular plants lack the struct

104 Exploring the Building Blocks of Science Book 7 AnthocerotophytaHornworts Hornworts are nonvascular plants found in ponds, in slow streams, on riverbanks, and in other damp places. Because hornwor

Biology Chapter 6 Plants 105 6.5 Vascular Plants Vascular plants include all plants that contain the structures called xylem and phloem, the vascular tissues that are used to carry water and nutrien

106 Exploring the Building Blocks of Science Book 7 6.6 Nonseeded Vascular Plants Phyla Lycopodiophyta club mosses Nonseeded Vascular Sphenophyta horsetails Polypodiophyta ferns Psilophyta whisk

Biology Chapter 6 Plants 107 SphenophytaHorsetails 1 3 Horsetails are in the family Equisetaceae and are strangelooking vascular plants with jointed, upright, hollow stems and creeping horizontal st

108 Exploring the Building Blocks of Science Book 7 A frond emerges from the ground coiled up and looks like the carved end of the neck of a violin, earning it the name fiddlehead. The fiddleheads of

Biology Chapter 6 Plants 109 PsilophytaWhisk Ferns Whisk ferns are a small group of vascular plants found in tropical and subtropical regions. Whisk ferns have stems that grow upward to a height of a

110 Exploring the Building Blocks of Science Book 7 a small seedling will sprout from the seed. The seedling will have fully functioning tissues in its plant body that form roots and perform photosynt

Biology Chapter 6 Plants 111 base, narrow top, and branches that point downward, allowing them to shed snow in the winter months without breaking their branches. The majority of conifer forests occur

112 Exploring the Building Blocks of Science Book 7 GinkgophytaGinkgo biloba Ginkgo biloba is unique among the gymnosperms because it is the only plant in its divisionit has no other living relatives.

Biology Chapter 6 Plants 113 CycadophytaCycads Cycads are slow growing trees that have very long life spans, with some specimens as old as 1000 years. According to fossil records, cycads were plentif

114 Exploring the Building Blocks of Science Book 7 Angiosperms have traditionally been Magnoliophyta Division divided into two main classes Liliopsida, or monocots, and Magnoliopsida, or dicots. Thes

Biology Chapter 6 Plants 115 Monocots Cotyledon Embryo Corn seed Dicots Embryos have a single cotyledon Flower parts are in multiples of three Bean seed Embryo Embryos have two cotyledons Flower p

116 Exploring the Building Blocks of Science Book 7 6.8 Summary Plants belong to the domain Eukarya and the kingdom Plantae. Like animal cells, plant cells contain organelles such as mitochondri

Start Here Does the plant have xylem and phloem No Does the plant have hairlike structures Yes I dont know Yes No Open a plant part. Look with the magnifying glass and make your best guess. It is

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